*Lead-acid Battery (Pb/Ac)
The use of lead-acid batteries began in the nineteenth century. Because of low manufacturing costs, good performance and long life, the lead-acid battery is still the most common rechargeable battery system in the world, with a market share of as much as 40 to 45%.
The lead-acid battery has a wide field of applications, and new manufacturing methods, cell designs and application areas are still introduced.
Its most common use is as a starter battery in cars, with additional applications in industrial trucks and as reserve power.
NiCd Batteries are a mature and thoroughly tested battery technology that was patented in 1899. NiCd batteries are used in a wide variety of stationary, mobile and portable applications, ranging from large-scale backup power and start batteries for aircraft to handheld power tools and toys.
Due to stricter EU environmental legislation, NiCd batteries are expected to be gradually phased out in Europe, at least in consumer electronics applications. However, NiCd Batteries are expected to retain a strong position on several niche market.
The NiMH Battery uses relatively new battery technology developed in the early 1990s. NiMH batteries offer the same cell voltage as NiCd batteries, and can therefore replace them in many applications without modification.
Cell voltage combined with higher energy density and better environmental properties are the driving forces that enabled NiMH batteries to capture market share from NiCd in consumer electronics products over the past decades. Today, Li-ion batteries have completely taken over the computer and mobile phone battery markets, though portable NiMH batteries are expected to remain on the market as a low-cost alternative to Lithium batteries
Li-ion batteries were introduced onto the market in the mid-1990s, Soon replacing the NiMH batteries in mobile phones, notebook computers, and other portable electronic devices. At the present time, the use of lithium batteries has been widely spread to a number of cheaper consumer products.
Li-ion batteries are still in a relatively early phase of development in relation to the energy storage industry, and have only been readily available for 15 years in the commercial market. This means that there is potential for both comprehensive technical development and price reductions.